Zachary Wartell

Zachary Justin Wartell, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science
Associate Director, Charlotte Visualization Center             Office Hours: M,W 2-3pm
Woodward 435B

              "Rendering" alla Dürer, 1525 



General Teaching Material


Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality User Interfaces

Visualization and Interactive Computer Graphics

Curriculum Vitae


Journal Publications

  1. Bernier, C., Petrov, A.S., Waterbury, C., Jett, J., Li, F., Freil, L.E., Xiong, b., Wang, L., Le, A., Milhouse, B.L., Hershkovitz, E., Grover, M., Xue, Y., Hsiao, C., Bowman, J.C., Harvey, S.C., Wartel, J.Z., and Williams, L.D. (2014)  "Ribovision: Visualization and Analysis of Ribosomes", The Royal Society of Chemister: Faraday Discussion. 169, 1-12.
  2. Finkelstein, S.; Nickel, A.; Lipps, Z.; Barnes, T.; Wartell, Z. & Suma, E. A. (2011), 'Astrojumper: Motivating Exercise with an Immersive Virtual Reality Exergame', Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 20(1), 78-92.
    [PDF, Bibtex] [Video: AstroJumper - Narrated,vimeo-astrojumper-Kinect]
  3. Butkiewicz, T., Meentemeyer, R.K., Shoemaker, D.A., Chang, R., Wartell, Z. & Ribarsky, W, Alleviating the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem within Probe-Based Geospatial Analyses, Computer Graphics Forum, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010, Vol. 29(3), pp. 923-932.
    [PDF, Bibtex]
  4. Thomas Butkiewicz, Wenwen Dou, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, Remco Chang (2008). "Multi-Focused Geospatial Analysis Using Probes". IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)/ InfoVis 2008, vol. 14, no 6. pp. 1165-1172, Nov/Dec, 2008.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI] (acceptance rate 26%)
  5. Thomas Butkiewicz, Remco Chang, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky (2008). "Visual Analysis and Semantic Exploration of Urban LIDAR Change Detection," Computer Graphics Forum (EuroVis 2008), vol. 27, num. 3, September 2008.
    [PDF] (acceptance rate 31%)
  6. Remco Chang, Thomas Butkiewicz, Caroline Ziemkiewicz, Zachary Wartell, Nancy Pollard, William Ribarsky (2008). "Legible Simplification of Textured Urban Models," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CG&A) Special Issue on Procedural Urban Modeling, pp. 27-36, May/June 2008.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI]
  7. Zachary Wartell, Larry F. Hodges, William Ribarsky (2002). "An Analytic Comparison of Alpha-False Eye Separation, Image Scaling and Image Shifting in Stereoscopic Displays," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Volume 8, Number 2, pp. 129-143, April-June 2002.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI]
  8. Bastian Leibe, Thad Starner, William Ribarsky, Zachary Wartell, David Krum, Justin Weeks, Bradley Singletary, and Larry Hodges (2000). "Toward Spontaneous Interaction with the Perceptive Workbench." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 2-12, November/December 2000.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI]

Conference Publications (Peer Reviewed)

  1. Jinbo Feng, Isaac Cho, Zachary Wartell. "Comparison of Device-Based, One and Two-Handed 7DOF Manipulation Techniques," Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction, ACM, pages 2-9, August 2015. [doi: 10.1145/2788940.2788942]. 
    [PDF] [Video]
  2. Isaac Cho, Zachary Wartell. Evaluation of a Bimanual Simultaneous 7DOF Interaction Technique in Virtual Environments. In IEEE 10th Symp. on 3D User Interfaces, pages 133-136, March 2015. [doi: 10.1109/3DUI.2015.7131738]
    [PDF] [Video]
  3. Jialei Li, Isaac Cho, Zachary Wartell. Evaluation of 3D Virtual Cursor Off set Techniques for Navigation Tasks in a Multi-DisplayVirtual Environment. In IEEE 10th Symp. on 3D User Interfaces, pages 59-66, March 2015. [doi: 10.1109/3DUI.2015.7131727]
    [PDF] [Video]
  4. Isaac Cho, Jialei Li, Zachary Wartell.  "Evaluating Dynamic Stereo View Parameters in a Multi-Scale Virtual Environment".  IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 29-30 March 2014, pp. 91-98.
    [PDF] [Video]
  5. Isaac Cho, Xiaoyu Wang, Zachary Wartell. "HyFinBall: A Two-Handed, Hybrid 2D/3D Desktop VR Interface for Multi-Dimensional Visualization". Proc. SPIE 9017, Visualization and Data Analysis 2014, 90170E (December 23, 2013).
    [PDF] [Video]
  6. Andrea Nickel, Hugh Kinsey, Tiffany Barnes, Zachary Wartell. Supporting an Interval Training Program with the Astrojumper Video Game. In electronic proceedings of Meaningful Play 2012. October 18 - 20, East Lansing, MI, USA, 2012.
  7. Isaac Cho, Wenwen Dou, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, and Xiaoyu Wang. 2012. Evaluating depth perception of volumetric data in semi-immersive VR. In Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI '12), Genny Tortora, Stefano Levialdi, and Maurizio Tucci (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 266-269.
    [PDF] [ACM DOI].
  8. William Ribarsky, Eric Sauda, Zachary Wartell, Jeffery Balmer, "The Whole Story: Building the Complete History of a Place," Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1864-1873, 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2012.
  9. Suma, E.A., Clark, S., Krum, D.M., Finkelstein, S.L., Bolas, M.T. & Wartell, Z. Leveraging change blindness for redirection in virtual environments, Virtual Reality Conference (VR), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 159 -166.
    [PDF, IEEE DOI, Bibtex]
  10. Amy C. Ulinski, Zachary Wartell, Paula Goolkasian, Evan A. Suma, and Larry F. Hodges (2009), "Selection performance based on classes of bimanual actions," 3D User Interfaces, 2009. 3DUI 2009. IEEE Symposium on, vol., no., pp.51-58, March 14-15 2009.
    [PDF, IEEE DOI] (26.5% acceptance rate)
  11. Amy Ulinski, Catherine Zanbaka, Zachary Wartell, Paula Goolkasian, Larry F. Hodges (2007). Two Handed Selection Techniques for Volumetric Data. IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2007. Charlotte, North Carolina, pg 107-114. March 10-11, 2007.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI] (23% acceptance rate)
  12. Zachary Wartell, Eunjung Kang, Tony Wasilewski, William Ribarsky, and Nickolas Faust (2003). Rendering Vector Data over Global, Multiresolution 3D Terrain. Eurographics-IEEE Visualization Symposium 2003, pp. 213-222, 2003.
    [PDF] (48% acceptance rate)
  13. Zachary Wartell and Larry Hodges and William Ribarsky (2001). "Characterizing Image Fusion Techniques in Stereoscopic HTDs." Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2001, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 223-232, June 2001.
    [PDF] (48% acceptance rate)
  14. Bastian Leibe, Thad Starner, William Ribarksy, Zachary Wartell, David Krum, Brad Singletary, Larry F. Hodges (2000). "The Perceptive Workbench: Towards Spontaneous and Natural Interaction in Semi-Immersive Virtual Environments." Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2000 Conference. March 18-22, New Brunswick, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2000.
    Received Best Paper Award.
    [PDF, IEEE DOI] (33% acceptance rate)
  15. Zachary Wartell, Larry F. Hodges, William Ribarsky (1999)."Balancing Fusion, Image Depth, and Distortion in Stereoscopic Head-Tracked Displays."SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series. ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley, pp. 351-357, August 1999.
    [PDF, ACM DOI] (16.3% acceptance rate; tier 1)
  16. Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, Larry Hodges (1999). "Efficient Ray Intersection for Visualization and Navigation of Global Terrain using Spheroidal Height-Augmented Quadtrees." VisSym '99, Joint EUROGRAPHICS - IEEE TCCG Symposium on Visualization, in Vienna, Austria, May 26-28, 1999.
    [PDF] (47% acceptance rate)
  17. Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, Larry Hodges. "Third-Person Navigation of Whole-Planet Terrain in a Head-Tracked Stereoscopic Environment." Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality '99 Conference, March 13-17, Houston, Texas: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999, pp. 141-148.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI] (33% acceptance rate)
  18. Jim Durbin, J. Edward Swan II, Brad Colbert, John Crowe, Rob King, Tony King, Chris Scannell, Zachary Wartell, Terry Welsh (1998). "Battlefield Visualization on the Responsive Workbench." Proceedings IEEE Visualization '98, October 18-23, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998, pp.463-6, 568.
    [IEEE DOI] (42.4% acceptance rate)

Extended Abstracts/Short Papers (Peer Reviewed)

  1. Isaac Cho, Zachary Wartell, Wenwen Dou, Xiaoyu Wang and William Ribarsky. "Stereo and Motion Cues Effect on Depth Perception in Volumetric Data."(To Appear). Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XXV (SD&A 2014), IS&T / SPIE Electronic Imaging 2014.
  2. Samantha Finkelstein, Tiffany Barnes, Zachary Wartell and Evan A. Suma. "Evaluation of the Exertion and Motivation Factors of a Virtual Reality Exercise Game for Children with Autism." VAAT Workshop (Virtual and Augmented Assistive Technology) (VR 2013).
  3. E. Suma, S. Clark, S. Finkelstein, and Z. Wartell, "Leveraging Change Blindness for Walking in Virtual Environments," 2010 IEEE VR Workshop on Perceptual Illusions in Virtual Environments, pp. 10.
  4. Thomas Butkiewicz, Dong Hyun Jeong, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, and Remco Chang. "Hierarchical Multi-touch Selection Techniques for Collaborative Geospatial Analysis". SPIE Volume 7346: Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security, Orlando, FL United States, April 13-17 2009. Edited by Tolone, William J.; Ribarsky, William, pp. 73460D-73460D-9 (2009).
  5. Evan Suma, Samantha Finkelstein, Seth Clark, Zachary Wartell. "An Approach to Redirected Walking by Modifying Virtual World Geometry". PIVE 2009. Proceedings of IEEE VR 2009 Workshop on Perceptual Illusions in Virtual Environments, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, pp. 16-18, March 15 2009.
  6. Thomas Butkiewicz, Remco Chang, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky. "Visual Analysis for Live LIDAR Battlefield Change Detection," Defense and Security 2008: Special Sessions on Food Safety, Visual Analytics, Resource Restricted Embedded and Sensor Networks, and 3D Imaging and Display, Orlando, Florida, USA, M. S. Kim, K. Chao, W. J. Tolone, W. Ribarsky, S. I. Balandin, B. Javidi, S.-I Tu, Eds., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6983, pp. 69830B.1-69830B.10, 17-18 March 2008.
    [PDF , SPIE DOI]
  7. Thomas Butkiewicz, Remco Chang, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, "Analyzing Sampled Terrain Volumetrically with Regard to Error and Geologic Variation", Proc. SPIE Visualization and Data Analysis 2007, San Jose, CA. 2007.
    [PDF , SPIE DOI] (acceptance rate %50)
  8. Remco Chang and Thomas Butkiewicz and Caroline Ziemkiewicz and Zachary Wartell and Nancy Pollard and William Ribarsky, Hierarchical simplification of city models to maintain urban legibility, SIGGRAPH '06: ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches, 2006, Boston, Massachusetts pg130.
    [PDF , ACM DOI ]
  9. William Ribarsky, Zachary Wartell, and Nickolas Faust (2003). "Precision Markup Modeling and Display in a Global Geospatial Environment," SPIE 17th International Conference on Aerospace/Defense Sensing, Simulation, and Controls (2003).
    [SPIE DOI]
  10. W. Ribarsky, C.D. Shaw, Z.J. Wartell, and N.L. Faust, "Building the visual Earth," Radar Sensor Technology and Data Visualization, N.L. Faust, J.L. Kurtz, and R. Trebits, Eds., SPIE, 2002, pp. 228-239.
    [SPIE DOI]
  11. Jim Durbin, S.J. Julier, B. Colbert, J. Crowe, B. Doyle, R. King, T. King, C. Scannell, Z.J. Wartell, T. Welsh (1998). "Making information overload work: the Dragon software system on a virtual reality responsive workbench." Digitization of the Battlespace III, April 1998. Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol.3393, pp.96-107.
    [SPIE DOI]
  12. Mark A Tarlton, P. N. Tarlton, E.J. Lee, Zachary Wartell (1995). "Objects, Modeling and Media: A Framework for Interactive 3D Applications." AT&T Middleware Day and Software Symposium. October 24-26, 1995 Holmdel, New Jersey.

Posters (Peer Reviewed)

  1. Jinbo Feng and Zachary Wartell. 2014. Riding the plane: bimanual, desktop 3D manipulation. In Proceedings of the adjunct publication of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST'14 Adjunct). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 93-94. [DOI]
  2. Cho, I.; Wenwen Dou; Wartell, Z.; Ribarsky, W.; Xiaoyu Wang; , "Evaluating depth perception of volumetric data in semi-immersive VR," Virtual Reality Workshops (VR), 2012 IEEE , vol., no., pp.95-96, 4-8 March 2012. [doi: 10.1109/VR.2012.6180899]
  3. Evan Suma, Seth Clark, Samantha Finkelstein, and Zachary Wartell, "Exploiting Change Blindness to Expand Walkable Space in a Virtual Environment," IEEE Virtual Reality 2010. Poster Paper. Virtual Reality Conference (VR), 2010 IEEE, Boston, MA, USA, 20-24 March 2010, pg 305 - 306.
    [PDF , IEEE DOI]
  4. Amy Ulinski and Zachary Wartell and Larry F. Hodges. "Bimanual task division preferences for volume selection," In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Newport Beach, California, November 05 - 07, 2007). S. N. Spencer, Ed. VRST '07. ACM, New York, NY, 217-218, 2007.
    [ACM DOI]
  5. Ernst Houtgast, Onno Pfeiffer, Zachary Wartell, William Ribarsky, and Frits Post (2005), ``Navigation and interaction in a multi-scale stereoscopic environment,'' Poster Paper in Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2005 (B. Fröhlich, S. Julier, and H. Takemura, eds.), pp. 275--276, IEEE Computer Society Press, March 2005.
  6. Amin P. Charaniya, Nikolai Faaland, Srikumar Ramalingam and Suresh K. Lodha, William Ribarsky, Nick Faust, Zachary Wartell, and Tony Wasilewski. "Real-Time Uncertainty Visualization of Mobile Objects in VGIS." Poster and Demo at IEEE Visualization 2002 [PDF]

Book Chapters

  1. Ribarsky, W., Z. Wartell, W. Dou (2012). "Event Structuring as a General Approach to Building Knowledge in Time-Based Collections" inExpanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization. J. Dill, R. Earnshaw, D. Kasik, J. Vince and P. C. Wong, Springer London: 149-162.
    [PDF] [DOI]
  2. Zachary Wartell, Ernst Houtgast, Onno Pfeiffer, Chris D Shaw, William Ribarsky, and Frits Post, Interaction Volume Management in a Multi-scale Virtual Environment, Advances in Information & Intelligent Systems, SCI 251, Z.W. Ras and W. Ribarsky Editors, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009, pp. 327-349.
  3. Thomas Butkiewicz, Remco Chang, William Ribarsky, and Zachary Wartell. "Visual Analysis of Urban Terrain Dynamics." In "Understanding Dynamics of Geographic Domains", May Yuan, Kathleen S. Hornsby. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. 2007.
    [manuscript figures]
  4. William Ribarsky, Nickolas Faust, Zachary Wartell, Christopher Shaw, and Justin Jang. "Visual Query of Time-Dependent 3D Weather in a Global Geospatial Environment," Mining Spatio-Temporal Information Systems, R. Ladner, K. Shaw, and Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Editors, Kluwer, Amsterdam, 2002.

Tech Reports

  1. Xiaoyu Wang, Thomas Butkiewicz, Isaac Cho, Zachary Wartell. "Towards Utilizing Heterogeneous Analytics Interfaces in Coastal Infrastructure Management." Charlotte Visualization Center: Technical Report, CVC-UNCC-12-15. University of North Carolina at Charlotte. March 2012.
  2. Zachary Wartell. STEREOSCOPIC HEAD-TRACKED DISPLAYS: ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF DISPLAY ALGORITHMS. Ph.D. Dissertation. Georgia Institute of Technology. 2001.


  1. Cho, I., and Wartell, Z. "Volumetric Selection with the HyBall User Interface." 1st Workshop on Immersive Volumetric Interaction (WIVI 2013) at IEEE VR Workshop, Orlando, FL.


Past Classes